PoS Staking and Token Economics Comparison

A list of different staking, node and validator options for PoS chains: Cosmos, Polkadot, EOS, Tezos, Ethereum, Harmony.

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PoS Staking and Token Economics Comparison

A list of different staking, node and validator options for PoS chains: Cosmos, Polkadot, EOS, Tezos, Ethereum, Harmony.


Rewards, slashing, token economics, etc.

finance, cryptocurrency, staking, investing, crypto, list

Category Properties Harmony Cosmos Polkadot EOS Tezos Ethereum 2.0

Validator Committee Size 250 * 4 shards 125 (up to 300) 100 (up to 1000) 21 130 111

Committee Selection The top 1000 most staked validators Top 125 most staked validators Top 100 most staked validators Top 21 most voted block producers Randomly selected based on stake Need at least 8k XTZ (1 roll) Randomly selected among all validators who staked exactly 32 ETH

Voting power Weighted by effective stake Weighted by stake Equal for all validators Equal for all Weighted by stake equal for all

Block proposer Takes turns Chance of being block proposer is based on stakes Take turns Take turns Chance of being block proposer is based on stakes Randomly selected with equal chance

Hot/Cold key separation Yes Yes Yes (with additional control key to further separate cold key's functionality) Yes Yes Yes

Reward Block rewards (validators) Proportional to validators' effective stake Proportional to validators' stakes Equal for all validators Equal for all validators (0.25% inflation to BP - Fixed block rewards for all; 0.75% to standby BP distributed based on percentage of votes. 4% for development fund) Proportional to validators' stakes Equal for all validators

Block rewards (delegators) After commission fees, distribute the rest in proportion to delegated stakes After commission fees, distribute the rest in proportion to delegated stakes After commission fees, distribute the rest in proportion to delegated stakes N/A After commission fees, distribute the rest in proportion to delegated stakes N/A

Reward Calculator N/A link link link link N/A

Payout schedule every block (~5s) every block (~6s) Recorded every 5s, Payout every 1 hour every block (~500ms) delegation become active after 7 cycles; reward locked after another 5 cycles (15 days) N/A

Transaction Fee Normal Gas fee Block proposer gets: 1% more if 2/3 signatures included; 5% more if 100% signatures included; (2% of txn fee goes to reserve pool of cosmos) N/A No Explicit Fee Normal Gas Fee + storage fee N/A

Slashing Double Signing Penalty Minimum 2% slash; 33% if 1/3 validators double sign; Half burn + half goes to reporter 5% penalty; all stakes are automatically unbonded and can't be rebond for 21 days; validator jailed forever N/A No Slashing Security deposit of 512 XTZ (per block) for baking and 64 XTZ for endorsement will be slashed; half goes to reporter + half burned Minimum 1ETH slashed; Goes up linearly as the number of validators slashed at the same time

Unavailability Condition 66% of the block missed during an epoch 95% missed blocks in last 10k blocks (16hours) Offline for "offline_slash_grace + unstake_theshold" times (e.g. 4 + 10 = 14) didn't produce blocks for the last 24 hours Missed all blocks for 5 cycles (15 days) offline for 18 days

Unavailability Penalty validator put into inactive mode and not included in shard assignment until they explicitly turn their mode back to active. 0.01% penalty; validator jailed for 10 mins Slashing on the stake BP removed from consensus Become passive (jailed) for 1 cycle if block is finalizing: the amount of block reward will be slashed; if block is not finalizing: Upto 60.8% stake will be slashed in 18 days

Validator Stake Centralization No Susceptible No (Equal power for all) Susceptible Susceptible No (Equal power for all)

Staking Bond/Unbond Every epoch Anytime Every era (1 hour) Anytime Anytime Anytime

Dynamic Staking Adjustment Yes No (have to withdraw and re-delegate Yes N/A Yes N/A

Stake Locking/Withdraw Delay 7 epoch 21 days 12 weeks Vote/staked tokens are locked for 3 days Security deposit locked for 5 cycles (15 days) 18 hours minimum or depending on the withdraw queue

Token Economics Annual Inflation Rate 4% 7%-20% (~7% at current) 2.5%-10% (10% at target) 5% (fixed) 5.51% (fixed) ~1% (TBD)

Annual Staking Return 10-20% ~10% (current) 2.5%-50% (20% at target) 1.84% 7% (now) ~0.8-8.2%

Target Staking Rate (at highest inflation) No Target 66% 50% N/A N/A N/A

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PoS Staking and Token Economics Comparison
Info
Tags Finance, Cryptocurrency, Staking, Investing, Crypto, List
Type Google Sheet
Published 20/07/2021, 13:20:38

Resources

Open Source DAO Market Research
Intro to DeFi
Bitcoin Song DB
Draft: DeFi and the Future of Finance
EIP-3074 Impact Study